Antibacterial finishing technology refers to the technology that uses various chemical technologies to make fabrics inhibit the growth of fungi, protect fabrics from bacterial invasion, and protect consumers from spreading pathogenic bacteria.
▲ Mites are in Micrograph in quilt cover
1 Antibacterial finishing
Antibacterial finishing It can prevent the reproduction of bacteria on the surface of fabrics, give the fabrics hygiene and freshness, prevent the generation of odor, control the generation of bacterial dirt, improve the feel of most fabrics, and prevent skin irritation. Evaluating the effect of antibacterial finishing cannot simply focus on the antibacterial data. What is more important is the threat to human safety, especially the long-term potential harm.
2 Main technologies
1. Blended spinning method: First add the antibacterial agent to the spinning material to make antibacterial fiber, and then make antibacterial textiles. This method has long-lasting antibacterial effect and good washability, but it has high technical content, great difficulty, covers a wide range of fields, and requires high antibacterial agents; it is often used to produce synthetic fiber products.
2. Finishing method: Add antibacterial agents (often called antibacterial finishing agents) during the finishing process of fabric printing and dyeing, and then make various Antibacterial textiles. The processing of this method is relatively simple, but the washing resistance and antibacterial effect are poor in durability.
3. Composite finishing method: first add the antibacterial agent to the spinning material to make antibacterial fiber, then add the antibacterial finishing agent during the post-printing and dyeing finishing process of the fabric, and then make the antibacterial fiber For textiles, this method is only used in special products with high antibacterial performance requirements, limiting the scope of use.
The second classification
1. Surface treatment technology: also called coating finishing, it is a method of evenly coating one or more layers of polymers and other substances on the surface of the fabric to give the fabric a certain function. Surface finishing technology) Coating finishing is applied on the surface of the fabric without penetrating into the interior of the fabric, so it can maintain the softness of the fiber itself.
2. Chemical functional finishing technology: Chemical finishing of fabrics relies on the interaction between specific chemicals (or finishing agents) and fibers. In addition to the possible covalent bonding between them, It may also be a combination of ionic bonds, coordination bonds, hydrogen bonds or van der Waals forces (dispersion force, induction force, coupling force), or even an adhesive to fix the finishing agent on the fiber surface.
3. Wool functional finishing technology: Functional finishing of wool fabric is to give wool fabric some functions that it does not originally have. The functional finishing of wool fabrics mainly includes: anti-felting finishing, elastic finishing, three-proof finishing, antistatic finishing, flame retardant finishing, antibacterial finishing, far infrared finishing, anti-UV finishing, etc.
4. Silk functional finishing technology: Silk fabrics can be kept hygienic, fresh and antibacterial through finishing. The silk fabric finishing process involves many processes. The choice of finishing process must take into account the desired silk feel and drape. The correct combination of finishing equipment and the sequence of finishing processes are key to determining the final style of silk fabrics.
5. Composite function organization technology: Same as above
3 Durability classification
That is, temporary antibacterial properties and durable antibacterial properties.
The temporary antibacterial properties of fabrics are easy to achieve during finishing, but are easily lost after washing; and the durability of antibacterial fabrics is mostly achieved through slow-release methods. According to this method, sufficient antimicrobial finishing agent should be incorporated into the fiber or fabric towel during the wet finishing process, and the treated fabric will inactivate bacteria by slowly releasing antimicrobial agents from the material.
However, if the antibacterial agents enter the material and are not covalently connected to the fibers, they may completely disappear during long-term use, and the functions they impart will also be lost. will decrease. In order to realize the endogeneity of the antibacterial function, a new finishing method has appeared many years ago, which is the development of the theoretical model proposed in Gagliardi’s report in 1962. According to this process, the parent antibacterial compound (potential antibacterial agent) replaces the antibacterial agent itself and is used in the antibacterial treatment of cellulose materials. Before the group with antibacterial function is activated, the parent antibacterial compound is covalently bound to the cellulose material, and then it can be activated through a reversible chemical process (such as a redox reaction) to release the antibacterial function. group. This finishing method is similar to the anti-wrinkle finishing process. The activation reaction can be achieved in a conventional process such as bleaching, whereby the antibacterial properties of the fabric can also be regenerated.
4 Test methods
The effect of antibacterial and deodorizing textiles must pass Antibacterial test inspection can be divided into antibacterial test and bactericidal test according to the different antibacterial activity. According to the degree of quantification, it can be divided intoFor qualitative test, semi-quantitative test and quantitative test.
The following is a brief introduction to two commonly used experimental methods:
1. Culture medium method, which is a qualitative antibacterial test method, applied to fabrics. Make circular cloth samples of antibacterial fabrics and reference fabrics, place them in a culture medium containing a specified bacterial strain, and incubate them at a constant temperature for a certain period of time to observe the growth and size of the inhibition zone. The larger the inhibition zone, the higher the antibacterial activity of the fabric. This method is based on the release of antibacterial agents from the fibers into the culture medium, causing them to create an inhibitory zone around the fabric.
2. Shake flask method, this is a quantitative sterilization test method. Put antibacterial fibers or fabrics in an Erlenmeyer flask containing a culture medium (buffer solution) of certain bacteria, cover the bottle and shake it. After a certain period of time, observe the number of surviving bacteria in the culture medium. The sterilization rate is: Calculated by the following formula: sterilization rate = (1-number of bacteria after setting out/number of bacteria before setting out)×100%
The R&D and production of antibacterial textiles have gradually reached a certain scale at home and abroad. The operators and managers of antibacterial textiles have become increasingly aware that: only Only by developing environmentally friendly, safe, efficient and stable antibacterial textiles; using antibacterial textiles reasonably, safely and effectively; advocating honest and orderly competition in the industry; and avoiding flashy concept hype can we promote the healthy development of antibacterial textiles and make them truly benefit the world. civil. </p