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Main structure and characteristics of rapier loom



Main structure and characteristics of rapier loom The rapier loom uses a flexible or rigid rapier and a rapier head to form a weft insertion device. The rapier head holds the weft yarn and transfers the weft ya…

Main structure and characteristics of rapier loom

The rapier loom uses a flexible or rigid rapier and a rapier head to form a weft insertion device. The rapier head holds the weft yarn and transfers the weft yarn in the shed for weft insertion. Since the weft yarn is held by the sword head during weft insertion, the weft insertion is stable and reliable, and the loom operates smoothly. The color selection performance of rapier loom weft yarn is good, the number of wefts selected can reach up to 16 colors, and the change of varieties is simple and convenient. Its biggest feature is that the loom has a wide range of adaptability and can use spinning yarns of various raw materials to weave various types of fabrics. It is very suitable for the production of small batches and multiple varieties of fabrics.
The rapier loom mainly consists of a frame, a main drive system, a shedding mechanism, a weft insertion mechanism, a beating mechanism, a let-off mechanism, a take-up mechanism, a weft yarn supply mechanism, a selvedge mechanism, an automatic weft finding mechanism, and a weft selection mechanism. It consists of mechanism, lubrication system and control system. The main structure and characteristics of the rapier loom are as follows:
1. Shedding mechanism
There are negative dobby devices, positive dobby devices, cam (pedal) shedding mechanisms, jacquard shedding mechanisms, etc. The installation method of the dobby device is bottom-mounted or top-mounted, and the number of heald frames is 20 to 24 pages.
2. Main transmission system
Generally, the main motor drives each mechanism through the electromagnetic brake clutch. The electromagnetic brake clutch is controlled by the electrical control system and can accurately realize the starting, inching, positioning, parking and other functions of the loom. Some looms use variable speed motors such as switched reluctance motors, variable reluctance motors, brushless DC motors, variable frequency motors and other direct transmission mechanisms.
3. Weft insertion transmission mode
Generally adopt conjugate cam, eccentric connecting rod, space crank connecting rod, space screw and other methods. The sword driving range is adjustable.
4. Weft insertion method
Most models adopt flexible sword belts on both sides and weft transfer in the center. There are also some that use a rigid rapier center connection. In very few cases, the single-sided sword belt (rod) directly passes through the entire shed for weft insertion.
5. Weft yarn supply
Using a stand-alone bobbin creel and electronic weft feeder to achieve continuous constant tension unwinding of the weft yarn bobbin.
6. Weft color selection
Generally use electronic weft selector, microcomputer control, up to 16 colors of weft. There are also ones equipped with mechanical weft selectors.
7. Beating-up mechanism
Most of the looms adopt conjugate cam beat-up mechanism, and a few looms adopt non-separate four-link or six-link beat-up mechanism.
8. Let-off mechanism
Use mechanical let-off mechanism or electronic let-off mechanism.
9. Coiling mechanism
Adopt mechanical coiling mechanism or electronic coiling mechanism.
10. Weft density adjustment
The common range of weft density is 20~1500 weft/10cm. The mechanical let-off mechanism has two methods: a mechanical stepless weft density adjuster and an exchange gear to adjust the weft density. The weft density adjustment of the loom with electronic let-off and electronic take-up can change the weft density parameters by changing the angle of the take-up motor for each weft through the operation panel.
11. Selvage device
Leno selvage device is generally used, and it can also be equipped with fold-in edge, hot-melt edge and electronic selvage mechanism.
12. Automatic stop device for warp breakage
Electrical contact type.
13. Weft breaking automatic stop mode
Piezoelectric ceramic electronic sensing type, with weft breaking and double weft control functions.
14. Starting and braking
Adopt electromagnetic brake clutch. Some looms have begun to adopt variable speed motors such as switched reluctance motors, variable reluctance motors, brushless DC motors, variable frequency motors, etc.
15. Operating system
It adopts single-chip microcomputer operating system or PLC operating system, which has various detection and control functions.
16. Rapier head and sword belt
There are two types of rapier heads, active and passive, and swords with flexible rapier and rigid rapier. There is a trend towards small sword heads and flexible narrow sword belts.
17. Lubrication
The main transmission system adopts oil bath lubrication or spray lubrication, and some parts adopt manual pump and grease lubrication.
18. Automatic weft finding method
There are three ways, one is to install a reversing motor on the dobby; one is to set up a special slow speed motor for weft finding, both equipped with a clutch; and the other is directly driven by the main motor.
19. Selvage spinning yarn
Use independent small warp beams or multiple cheese yarns.
20. Cleaning and vacuuming
A stand-alone vacuum cleaner with double-sided suction, cleaning and anti-shrinkage functions.
21. Rack
Wall panel rack, cast iron wall panel, and some models adopt steel plate rack.
22. Cloth rolling
Generally, the cloth is rolled inside the machine, and the cloth is rolled outside the machine as an option. Both are constant line speed rolls.
23. Side shear
There are two types: mechanical and electronic.
24. Signal processing
Multi-color signal indicator lights indicate longitude stop, weft stop and waiting signals.
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